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Monday, October 24, 2016

The young, educated, minorities and the poor move out from south central Ethiopia - African Population Studies, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2016, pp. 2296-2305

Migration takes place due to many "Pull Factors" such as better living conditions, better job opportunity, and an overall better life and many "Push Factors" such as unequal access to assets, income, education, healthcare, house ownerships or natural disasters. These natural and manmade factors affect migration rates where communities, individuals, and families move from one area to another. Migration studies conclude that males, youth, people who don’t own property, religious and ethnic minorities, and educated people are highly likely to migrate out of small cities. Furthermore, migration flows also create dramatically during famines.

Guraghe that is one of the most densely populated zones in Ethiopia. A rapid population growth, low cropping intensity, and fragmental rural land holdings have created a surplus of labor. Due to the economic development witnessed in Ethiopia, people are moving into urban hubs. The study was conducted in Butajira district of Guraghe zone that is located in the Southern nation in an arid and semi-arid area geographically. The district not only had Guraghe tribe predominantly inhabiting it, Silti and Mareko were also other major ethnic groups living in the area. There is a cyclical famine that takes place in the district, it is concerning as the time between the famines has shortened drastically.

This study looks at outmigration of people from 10 sample neighborhoods in south central Ethiopia to measure the incidence of outmigration among different population groups. Furthermore, ten sampled kebeles based on proportion to size technique were placed, first, a baseline population and housing census were conducted in 1987. Then, a continues monthly registration event took place monthly till 1999.

Results suggested that there was a 3.97 incidence of out-migration per 100 persons and 95% CI over the 22 years study period. High out migrations were observed among the youth aged 15-19 and 20-29 at the incidence rate of 7/25 and 6.26 per 100 persons. On the contrary, the incidence rate was only 1.94 and 2.08 among adults between the age of 40-49 years and 50 plus.

The study concluded that the young people aged 15-29 had out-migration at the higher rates which could be to find a better education, job, and marital arrangements. Out-migration was also higher among educated individuals compared to land owners and people who were married. Single people have less social and economic obligations giving them an opportunity to move. The study suggests that the local government should consider having strategies to ensure that the young have employment and housing opportunities in order to ensure that there is less out migrations.


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